Collectivization — Reshaped ka-Russian lemveli



Ngoaprili, Spartacus ballet, choreographed ngumthetho omkhulu Russian mfundisi Yuri Frigorific, premiered kwi-Bolshoi Theater. Kuba ezine decades, wenziwe a ukucacisa uxanduva lwemimandla umsebenzi theater, kwaye portrayed i-ukugqwesha kwaye athleticism ka-Bolshoi dancing. Upetros Carl Faberge ke ihlabathi-famous mfundisi jeweler kwaye intloko Endlwini Faberge kwi-Imperial Us kwi-waning iintsuku ezingama-Russian Empire. Kwi-ekwindla ka, urhulumente ukuphumela isonka yokuthenga amaxabiso. I-peasants, ababe obligated kuyo isonka urhulumente, waphendula nge»isonka uqhankqalazo»: kokuba kugqitywe ukuba ulinde kude kube entlakohlaza kuyo iinkozo zabo, kuba entlakohlaza amaxabiso baba ukukhula. Oku yongezelela ingxaki lwezityalo ukungaphumeleli kwaye wenza kombane kwi-troubles abaninzi mveliso centers. waba ungeniswa: abantu banyanzeleka ukuba surrender limited izixa-mali ka-isonka urhulumente. Lo mgaqo-nkqubo kokuba sele ibisoloko isetyenziswa xa, eziliqela ngaphambi. Ngowe, izityalo ayiphumelelanga kwakhona, kwaye nangona kukho le amanyathelo athathwa, indlala wabuyela kweli lizwe. Ngo, kukho bebe ishumi elinesine amabini collective iifama ezahluka-iintlobo ezininzi ezonakeleyo kwi-USSR. Urhulumente wabona kubo njengoko ngakumbi productive kwaye lula ulawulo, ngoko ke wanika collectives iinyhweba: bale mihla izixhobo kwaye irhafu remissions. Iyonela kububanzi bephepha lo mbhodamo, Stalin kugqitywe okuzisa zonke umntu amakhaya kwi amahlwempu peasants baba iindaba ukuva oku iindaba, kodwa wealthy okkt bengengabo ilungile ukunika kude yonke into yokuba owned. Kwi-despair, abantu bambulala kwezabo iinkomo kwaye burned kweyabo imihlaba.

Riots waqala apha naphaya, kwaye emva ekubeni suppressed baguqulele kwi-izenzo terror kwaye sabotage, abo babengengabo ufuna ukungena kolkhozes baba mbasa-wonke iintshaba kwaye ababanjiweyo, exiled, okanye usetyenzisiwe. Ngexesha elinye, ukuba onjalo siyingqokelela abalimi basoloko ukufunda Stalins inqaku Dizzy kunye impumelelo, eyabhengezwa kwisaziso Pravde newspaper Ngomatshi wama, Kwi, xa amathandathu ka-peasants babebaninzi kolkhozes, Stalin ngesiquphe kuhlangatyezwana yakhe abemi angeliso inqaku, apho lowo criticized eyiyeyakhe edlulileyo iintshukumo. Ngokunxulumene eli nqaku, kwaba yimpazamo ukuba drive abantu bangena kolkhozes ngesinyanzelo, kwaye ngoko ke wonke umntu kokuba ilungelo owakhe ifama. amashumi amabini uwaphinda-omnye peasants washiya kolkhozes ngoko nangoko, kodwa isiqingatha unyaka kokuba abuye: urhulumente ungeniswa unbearably enkulu iirhafu kuba umntu amakhaya. I-USSR waba kwimo engeyiyo kwakucwangcisiwe kuqoqosho. Ngowe, iinkozo ukuthenga isicwangciso wabonakala kuba kakhulu: ezininzi imimandla ayeza surrender ngakumbi isonka ngaphezu kokuba. I blame waba shifted kwi kulaks, abo»ufuna choke i-Soviet urhulumente yi-bony kwesandla indlala», njengoko Pavel Postyahev, Nobhala Central Iqela Ikomiti, wathi. Stalin wayalela ukuba isicwangciso kuzalisekiswa nangaliphi na iindleko, kwaye indlala akazange athathe ixesha elide ukuba ivele.

Kwi-Ukraine kwaba kakhulu oboyikisayo

Zonke izinja kunye cats disappeared ukusuka dolophana ezitratweni. Amapolisa ukuba ingaba izenzo cannibalism kwaye lynching ka-cannibals. Xa peasants balingwe ukuqhuba kude izixeko, ezikhethekileyo imikhosi lumisiwe kwabo. Ukufumana ubuncinane a handful egrain, peasants sneaked kwi kolkhoz imihlaba ukusika jikelelela ekhohlo emva izityalo okanye ukukhetha phezulu ezinye iimbewu. Kwaba kakhulu ezinobungozi: abantu ibambe stealing kolkhoz ipropati babanjwa baza usetyenzisiwe okanye imprisoned kuba iminyaka elishumi. Ewe, aforementioned iintshukumo kanjalo counted njengoko stealing. Peasants ngokuba lo mthetho»Umthetho Ezintathu Jikelelela», kwaye, peasants wawa victim kuyo, wafa ngowe- kwaye igosa newspapers zihleli cwaka malunga indlala. Xa foreigners watyelela USSR, baba kuhlangatyezwana nazo kunye feasts kwaye smiles. Babuyela ekhaya assured ukuba yonke into inikwe bonke ekunene kwi-Soviet Union, kwaye kuphela Nazi propagandists babe cinga okanye thetha i-enye indlela. Ngowe, reorganization ye-administrative apparatus ekugqibeleni kwamnceda ukumisa intlekele, kwaye silondolozekile a significantly enkulu isityalo.

Ngowe, ration inkqubo kwi-izixeko waba abolished

Nangona kunjalo, banyanzeleka collectivization phantse watshabalalisa Soviet lezolimo, kwaye ke wathabatha iminyaka ukubuyisela kuyo.»Skomorokhs»baba yamandulo, isirussian strolling performers, abo entertained abantu kunye iingoma, dances, official yenza kwaye acrobatic amaqhinga. Fermented imveliso zobisi, basele, iyafana yougurt, equlethe isempilweni iintsholongwane, apho ngokuphonononga digestion. Kefir nanamhlanje omntu omnye ezisisiseko ingredients kwi-Russian familys yezosondlo. Domestic immersion heater, widely asetyenziswa USSR, apho umbane kwaba cheap kwaye comforts njenge zinokuphathwa amanzi bengengabo lula efikelelekayo. I-vytrezvitel yaba sobering-phezulu sovavanyo kwi-republics ka-owokuqala USSR, ngokunjalo kwezinye Empuma European amazwe. Ibali i-Umlingo Goldfish okanye Ibali i-Fisherman kwaye Intlanzi lenziwa famous yi Russian umbhali Alexandr Pushkin ngowe. Oladushki ingaba omnye iindidi ezimbini pancakes kwazeke ukuba Russian cuisine bamele i-thicker okkt — ezinye ekubeni thinner crepe-njenge blini